Euphonious (Pleasant Sounding) Cacophonous (Harsh sounding) Monosyllabic (One syllable) Polysyllabic (More than one syllable) Describe diction (choice of words) by considering the following: 1. Words can be monosyllabic (one syllable in length) or polysyllabic (more than one syllable in length). The higher the ratio of polysyllabic words, the more difficult the content. 2. Words can be mainly colloquial (slang), informal (conversational), formal (literary) or old-fashioned. 3. Words can be mainly denotative (containing an exact meaning, e. G. , dress) or connotative (contacting suggested meaning, e. G. , gown) 4.
Words can be incorrect (specific) or abstract (general or conceptual). 5. Words can euphonious (pleasant sounding, e. G. , languid, murmur) or cacophonous (harsh sound, e. G. , raucous, croak). IMAGERY Creates a vivid picture and appeals to the senses Alliteration repetition of consonant sounds at the start of a word Assonance repetition of vowel sounds in the middle of a word Moths cough and drop wings Consonance repetition of consonant sounds in the middle of a word The man has kin in Spain Onomatopoeia writing sounds as words The clock went tick tock Simile a direct comparison of unlike things using like or as Her hair is like a rat's nest
Metaphor a direct comparison of unlike things The man's suit is a rainbow Hyperbole a deliberate exaggeration for effect I'd die for a piece of candy Understatement represents something as less than it is A million dollars is okay Personification attributing human qualities to inhuman objects The teapot cried for water Metonymy word exchanged for another closely associated with it Uncle Sam wants you! Pun play on words - Uses words with multiple meanings Shoes menders mend soles. Symbol something that represents/stands for something else the American Flag Analogy comparing two things that have at least one thing in common
Why is the sentence length effective? 2. Examine sentence beginnings. Is there a good variety or does a patterning emerge? 3. Examine the arrangement of ideas in a sentence. Are they set out in a special way for a purpose? 4. Examine the arrangement of ideas in a paragraph. Is there evidence of any pattern or structure? 5. Examine the sentence patterns. Some elements to consider are listed below: a. A declarative (assertive) sentence makes a statement: e. G. , The king is sick. B. An imperative sentence gives a command: e. G. , Stand up. C. An interrogative sentence asks a question: e. G. , Is the king sick? D. Makes an exclamation: e. G. , The king is dead! E.
An exclamatory sentence A simple sentence contains A compound sentence contains two independent clauses Joined by a coordinate conjunction (and, but, or) or by a semicolon: e. G. , The singer bowed to the audience, but she sang no encores. G. A complex sentence contains an independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses: e. G. , You said that you would tell the truth. H. A compound-complex sentence contains two or more principal lasses and one or more subordinate clauses: e. G. , The singer bowed while the audience applauded, but she sang no encores. I. A loose sentence makes complete sense if brought to a close before the actual ending: e. G. , We reached Edmonton/that morning/after a turbulent flight/and some exciting experiences.
A periodic sentence makes sense only when the end of the sentence is reached: e. G. , That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton. K. In a balanced sentence, the phrases or clauses balance each other by virtue or their likeness of structure, meaning, or length: e. . , He make me to lie down in green pastures; he leaders me beside the still waters. Natural order of a sentence involves constructing a sentence so the subject comes before the predicate: e. G. , Oranges grow in California. M. Inverted order of a sentence (sentence inversion) involves constructing a sentence so that the predicate comes before the subject: e. G. , In California grow oranges.
This is a device in which normal sentence patterns are reverse to create an emphatic or rhythmic effect. N. Split order of a sentence divides the predicate into two parts with the subject coming in the middle: e. . , In California oranges grow. O. Juxtaposition is a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another creating an effect of surprise and wit: e. G. , "The apparition of these faces in the crowd:' Petals on a wet, black bough" ("In a Station of the Metro" by Ezra Pound) p. Parallel structure (parallelism) refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence.
It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and minimally phrased: e. G. , He was walking, running, and Jumping for Joy. Q. Repetition is a device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and create emphasis: e. G. , "... Government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth" ("Address at Gettysburg" by Abraham Lincoln) r. A rhetorical question is a question that expects no answer. It is used to draw attention too point that is generally stronger than a direct statement: e. G. , If Mr... Force is always fair, as you have said, why did he refuse to listen to Mrs... Baldwin arguments?