Pompeii and Herculaneum

Published: 2021-07-31 15:50:07
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Category: Wine, Archaeology, Pompeii

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Pompeii and Herculaneum are unique and remarkable because of their extraordinary state of preservation. No other archaeological site gives us so much information about life in ancient Rome. Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried in the volcanic eruption in 79AD in different ways, effectively which preserved majority of both sites. These archaeological remains that were left behind, such as bakeries, food bars, brothels, fulleries, wine presses and the Garum industry reveal a great deal about Industries and Occupations of this ancient civilisation.
Reliability, usefulness and limitations of these sources play a important role in the accuracy of information. Partially, much of our knowledge about occupations and industries comes from bakeries, as somewhat 33 bakeries have been found scattered around Pompeii. In source 1, the Bakery of Modestus, 81 round loaves of bread divided into eight segments were found concealed in the oven. Although some households may have made their own bread, archaeological evidence reveals that at time of the eruption, most people had bought their bakeries. This evidence is also reliant on the fact that very few houses in Pompeii contained ovens.
The bones of two donkeys were found still harnessed to the mills in a bakery in Herculaneum. This evidence suggests that most bakeries functioned this way. It can also be argued that slaves did this job as well. This evidence can be considered reliable and useful as of its number of convincing factors, and no opposing evidence suggesting otherwise. Thermopoliums (snack bars) have also broadened our knowledge about occupation in Herculaeum, as they were very common in ancient everyday life and seen throughout ruins of both towns . A total of over 130 small hot food bars have been identified to this day.



In source 2, it can be speculated that food was taken and eaten standing up, as few Thermopoliums had tables and chairs. Penelope Allison, an Australian archaeologist suggests that that the peoples busy lives probably left little time for long meals at the dinner table. This evidence is concluding but can not be relied upon as limited evidence clarifies that they did so. The location of food bars in Herculaneum were mainly found opposite the Palaestra, this is revealing evidence of a great marketing scheme which we still use to this day. This allowed the business to attract more customers and therefore make more usiness. This evidence is also limiting but can be classified as useful in the development of increasing knowledge. Another aspect revealing much about Pompeii's occupational life was Prostitution, also know as lupanaria (brothels) was one of the most popular business in all of Roman society. In Source 3, a erotic image on the wall of a Lupanaria, reveals advertisement of particular specialities of a prostitute. We can speculate whether these images were painted on the wall to erouse customers, and or to illistrate different expierences that could be purchased.
Many brothels also contained graffiti that mentioned the names of the women who worked their, and customers and the particular services they provided. These useful sources of information are limiting but contribute to our growing knowledge of Prostitution in Pompeii. Furthermore, Fulleries give us a considerable insight on the cloth manufacturing process in Pompeii. In source 4, the fullery of Stephanus, we can learn valuable information on manufacturing process of cloths. Paintings on the wall in the house of Stephanus reveal the process in which the cloths were cleaned.
Jars found at the back of the fullery still contained traces of ammonia, which indicate that urine was a important ingredient in the cleaning process. We also know of this key ingrediant as Pliny the Elder states that camel urine was prized most of all. These sources offering information can be considered reliable and useful to archaeologists. Likewise, another Industry that played a important part in Pompeii and Herculaneum economy was production of wine. In source 5, a wine press found in Pompeii, reveals valuable knowledge contributing to the production of wine, as the wine press was involved in the process of wine making.
Many houses have been found with wine presses in them aswell as doliums, in which the wine was stored in. Wine was sold widely around the town, as indicated in graffiti on shop fronts. Pliny the Elder states that 'Pompeian wine could cause a headache that last to none the next day', this supporting evidence gives archaeologists a insight into the quality of which Pompeian wine was, although many customers applauded Pompeian wines, this is evidential by graffiti in bars.
Majority of this evidence is both reliable and useful to archaeologists. Another addition to growing knowledge of Pompeii and Herculaneum's economy was the production of Garum. Only one Garum shop has been identified in Pompeii, this shop is shown in source 1 and is supporting evidence towards the production of Garum. Garum was extremely popular, Archaeologists know this with reference to Pliny the Elder who quotes 'no other liquid except urgents has come to be more highly valued'.
Archaeologists can also apprehend that Garum was distributed and sold widley around the Italian surrounding areas, we know this from containers of garum that have benn found scattered around the Vesuvius area, as well as traces of Garum jars found in France. As study performed by Robert Curtis, estimated that 70% of Garum was locally produced, this came from the remains of Garum in containers. Pliny statement can be considered reliable as well as useful to archaeologists, this is applies to Robert Curtis' study. In conclusion, it can be argued that Pompeii and Herculaneum are two of the most unigue and important sites of the ancient world.

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