Some Aspects Of British Architecture Essay

Published: 2021-07-13 06:45:05
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Category: Architecture, England, Marriage, Divorce

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My male parent 's household is from Hampshire county in England. He lived in Gosport until age 18 when he attended to the University of Leeds ( northern England ) . He worked in Manchester and London, and so he moved to USA. My male parent 's household 's roots on his female parent 's side can be traced to the Gallic Huguenot household. They were Protestants being persecuted by Catholics and so they fled to Guernsey in the channel islands so came to England.
My male parent came to the USA in 1983 from England because Margaret Thatcher cut his support with the Tropical Medicine Disease Board. He was working at St. George 's infirmary in London at the clip. He moved to the Unites States because he had met an American in Bogota who had got him a occupation for with the US authorities. Like most migrators, he was looking for work.
My male parent went to work at Montana State University, but his visa expired so he left the Unites States and went to Canada to happen work because he could n't acquire a Green card. He will return with me & A ; my mother old ages subsequently in 1994.



My household 's roots are in, Gosport a town, territory and borough that is along the southern seashore of England in Hampshire county. It is the 4th largest metropolis in Hampshire, and until the late twentieth century it was a outstanding military and naval centre. Its location was ideal because it is in Portsmouth Harbor opposite the metropolis of Portsmouth. This is of import to me because my gramps was one of the Queen 's Royal Physicians in the Royal Navy for many old ages.
Naval activities declined in the last one-fourth of the twentieth century and so installings related to these activities are unfastened to the populace and attract tourers. These include Fort Blockhouse and Palmerston Forts like Fort Brockhurst. Gosport and Portsmouth are popular tourer finish because of the historic significance, but this helped by the temperate clime in southern England. The winters are cold but it seldom snows. The summer is warm, normally temperatures in the 70s or 80s.
Royal Hospital Haslar closed in 2009. It was the last officially recognized military infirmary in England at the clip it closed and had been opened since 1753. Obviously many well-known naval officers were born and/or brought up in Gosport. Roger Black who was an Olympic Athlete that ran path was brought up at that place. He won single Ag decorations in both universe title and Olympic Games. The beginning of the name `` Gosport '' is controversial. Some believe it was derived from `` God 's Port '' but other historiographers and lingual specializer argue it could be derived from the word... `` goose. ''
The importance of naval civilization in southern England can be traced back to the Tudor period ( 1485-1603 ) . The first naval ships were built by Henry the VII, the first Tudor sovereign and the fleet was expanded by his boy, Henry the VIII. English civilization during Tudor times is intriguing. Not merely was it when the Royal Navy was created, which has shaped British civilization for coevalss, but Henry VIII initiates what is now known as the English Reformation which was the beginning of a spiritual yo-yo that lasted throughout the Tudor dynasty and has mostly influenced English faith as we know it.
Tudor society was mostly agricultural. Agriculturists grew chiefly rye and barley for staff of life and herbs and veggies for soups. Most households were besides pastoralists. They kept animate beings to bring forth cheese, milk and eggs. The most common animate beings were hogs and poulets.
The first Royal Navy was built, get downing of the British navigation tradition. The officers and soldiers on board used information engineering to turn up and strategize on how best to assail and get the better of their enemies. Southern England was particularly affected because of its location. Before, the King had to borrow merchandiser ships to travel to war, and as these ships were n't meant to transport many heavy canons and accidents were frequent so King Henry VII solved this job of endurance by constructing specialized ships. The new navy ships had gun ports so they could transport more canons and the canons would be unafraid. Southern England was ideal for building non merely because of close-by organic structures of H2O such as the English Channel, River Thames and Portsmouth Harbor but because of the woods of Kent and Sussex that were needed for edifice stuffs for these ships. Naval paces were built in legion locations in Southern England and many still play a function in today 's civilization, either politically because they are still used for military intents or economically because of touristry. This began at the clip of the House of tudors and has influences the cultural moral force in England today. We can state the new naval forces was an of import portion of civilization because we know so much about the ships of this clip. The male monarchs and Queenss in Tudor times were really proud of their ships. Pictures were drawn and narratives were written about them, so we know a batch about what they looked like and the events out at sea.
Industrialism was introduced during the terminal of Tudor period.A Coal lead and Sn were mined, though this wo n't take off until the eighteenth century. It did, nevertheless, lead to increase in the figure of towns and their size due to the migration towards the mines in hunt of work.
Technologies of industrialism were crude. Industrialists used chiefly shovels. This was possible because the mines were shallow and in some instances mining merely consisted of grating the surface where the merchandises could be found. Agricultural engineering consisted chiefly of ploughs, which were normally pulled by Equus caballuss or other animate beings. Pastoralists '' engineering was besides unsophisticated. Their farm animal lived in barns or little constructions. In many instances they were fenced in. they were kept on the farm, near the house so they would hold easy entree to the merchandises, such as milk and eggs. Shearss for shearing sheep were an of import portion of pastoralist engineering, as the demand for wool was high.
Ships were evidently the most of import engineering for those who subsisted utilizing information. Though the particular naval ships had been built, sometimes the male monarch still had to borrow merchandiser ships to his fleet complete fleet. On board these ships were canons. There were two types sorted by weight: heavy and light. Specialized naval ships allowed more heavy canons to be on board. Hand-held arms called expresswaies and measures were besides on board, along with longbows, and towards the mid/late 1500 's matchlock muskets were on the stock lists of big ships. Gun shields were portion of the ships protection, and crude pilotage engineerings and surgical engineerings were besides used on board naval ships. These were of import because they helped construe the information and maintain the crew and soldiers healthy.
Division of labour during the Tudor period was really much gender related. Womans did n't take part in industrialism. Boys and work forces worked in the mines, and the adult females stayed place and took attention of the house. This meant cookery, cleaning and child-rearing. Though agricultural adult females besides tended to the place, they grew nutrient in gardens and, though the work forces did much of the work in the field, the adult females would take excess to markets to sell. Pastoralist adult females were besides homemakers, but like agricultural adult females they had other occupations. They tended to the animate beings, which included feeding them and, for illustration, milking the cattles.
When it came to occupations in the naval forces, the division of labour was different. There were no adult females in the naval forces, and the occupations on the ships were divided by specialisation. On big ships like the pride and joy of Henry VIII the Mary Rose ; there were 200 crewmans to make the manual work on board. They took attention of the ship since the following class of workers was the soldiers and officers. There were different rankings in the naval forces, much like today, and some are appointed by the male monarch while others may be promoted. They were in charge of forming and contending the conflicts. On a ship like the Mary Rose, there were about 185 soldiers on board. The concluding group is the artillerymans, who were in charge of the arms on board. there was besides a physician on board, to take attention of the ill or those wounded in conflict.
Henry Tudor came became England 's sovereign in 1485. He killed Richard III, and proclaimed that his power was legitimate `` by conquering and God 's judgement on the battleground. '' A sovereign 's power is God-given. Henry Tudor became Henry VII King of England because he believed God had chosen him to get the better of Richard III. He is instantly accepted as King because if a sovereign chosen by God is questioned, God 's authorization is questioned. This would be unacceptable in these times. The system is centralized and persons have yielded their personal sovereignty the sovereign, who is God 's representative. They are hence indirectly giving to God. There was besides a parliament in Tudor times. Decisions are made by the King or Queen and a little group of advisors. Before the determinations become Torahs they must be approved by the parliament. The parliament, nevertheless, is submissive to the King for the most portion. Since by oppugning the sovereign you question God, parliament seldom disagreed with the King. Again, all personal sovereignty is yielded to the caput of province.
For the most portion, political engagement of the general population was minimum. Parliament consisted of two houses, The House of Lords who are appointed because of their rubric and the House of Commons. They members of the latter are supposed to be elected by the people in the country they represent, but there are few electors so normally the largest landholder designates the representative. These were the first efforts to do citizens politically engaged, and though it did n't work good at the clip, it contributed to the English civilization we have today and how the civilization is reflected politically.
There is still a royal household in England today, but they are constitutional sovereigns, intending they merely have ceremonial and representational responsibilities. The Prime Minister who holds much of the political power is democratically elected. The system remains centralised because though the people elect their leader, legalizing his authorization, they still yield their single sovereignty to him.
There is still respect for the royal household. When Windsor Palace burnt down, the taxpayers agreed to reconstruct it out of regard for the Queen. The royal household and is such an of import symbol of English civilization that symbols stand foring its prestigiousness are valued to a high degree.
The current Queen is really smart and seen as an authorization. The premier curate goes to see her on a hebdomadal footing to inquire for advice and discuss affairs of province. She has been queen since 1952, doing her one of the longest-serving caputs of province in the universe. She is perceived as a valuable resource. This is why the people respect her today and why the royal household is an of import and long-standing symbol of British civilization.
Most of the good are produced by agriculturists and pastoralists. The excess nutrient grown on their farms is taken to market to be sold. Negative reciprocality is used in the exchange of goods at the market. For illustration, craftsmen which produce pots needed by the agriculturists need the nutrient produced by the agriculturists. The marketer will seek and acquire what he needs from the exchange by acquiring the better terminal of the exchange. This is the footing of capitalist economy. These markets are an illustration of primary and secondary economic sectors. The agriculturists are selling natural stuff and nutrients ( primary ) and the craftsmen are selling finished goods ( secondary ) . The currencies used in the negative reciprocality exchange are lbs, shilling and pence.
Tudor England was known for its wool, which accounted for 90 % of English exports at the clip. Subsequently in the Tudor period industrialists ' goods would besides be exported but I smaller per centums. Imports were chiefly for the benefit of higher socio-economic categories. These imports included tapestry, lacing for all right vesture and art from Brussels, Venice and Iznik. Henry VIII was known for the big sum of Gallic vino imported during his reign. This brings us to the third sector: services. One illustration in Tudor times would be merchandisers, whose ships were used in the negative mutual exchanges with other states, importing all right goods and exporting wool.
Henry VIII, the 2nd Tudor male monarch, spun England into spiritual convulsion. Religion was really of import during the Tudor period. One of the cultural intents of faith is to function as a moral guideline for behaviour. When Cathrine of Aragon, Henry VIII 's first married woman, failed to give him a boy, Henry VII requested the Pope to allow him a divorce since the Roman Catholic Church was caput of England 's Church. The Pope refused. When the King failed to acquire a divorce, he decided that he would go the caput of the Church of England, interrupting off from the Roman Catholic Church. He was so able to allow himself a divorce, and get married his 2nd married woman Anne Boleyn. This was merely acceptable because the Church had declared his matrimony bastard. This matrimony represented the triumph of Protestantism. However, after Henry VIII and his boy Edward 's deceases, Mary I, his first girl and a devout Catholic, was crowned queen. The 1s responsible for her enthronement was the group of Roman Catholics who still recognized her female parent 's matrimony to Henry VIII legitimate since the Pope had n't declared it illegitimate. This meant that she was still portion of Henry VIII line of descent and was entitled to his throne. Religion 's cultural importance here is clear: it defines line of descents and empowers persons. Queen Mary I persecuted Protestants, seeking to reconstruct the Roman Catholic Church at the caput of the Church England. After her decease, Elizabeth was crowned queen. She eventually was able to settle the cultural issue that had stemmed from the difference sing who was to be the caput of the Church. She re-established the Church of England, but balanced the demands of the Puritans and the Catholics. This brings us to where we are today: the British Monarch is the caput of the Church of England. Though faith is no longer every bit of import as it was during the reign of the Tudor dynasty, there are far fewer Roman Catholics ( 9 % ) in England today that people who belong to the Church of England ( 20 % ) . These statistics are the consequence of the spiritual yo-yo during the Tudor dynasty.
Family is the most basic signifier of societal organisation in any civilization. The anthropological maps of matrimony are clearly reflected in Tudor civilization. Marriage is first and foremost to legalize the kids. When Henry VIII divorced his first married woman and once more when he divorced his 4th married woman, the girls he had had with them were declared bastard. At the clip they were declared bastard, they were ne'er expected to go up to the throne because when the matrimony dissolved they were no longer portion of his line of descent. Many matrimonies in Tudor times allied households and allowed for money, land or power to stay under a certain household 's control. For illustration, after the decease of Henry VIII 's boy Edward, Lord President Numberland hoped that Lady Jane Grey would go queen so he could get married her to his boy, seting his household in a place of political power. Marriage is besides the footing of affinity: when Mary I became queen, she declared that Henry VIII and Cathrine of Aragon ( her female parent 's ) matrimony was legitimate. This meant she was still portion of the Tudor dynasty and, had she had kids, they would hold ascended to the throne because they are portion of Tudor line of descent.
Tudor matrimonies were arranged, particularly for richer households because big sums of belongings, money and power were at interest. Marriages were monogamous: a adult male could merely be married to one adult female and a adult female merely to one adult male, therefore the divorces, executings and deceases of five of the six married womans of Henry VIII. This means that matrimonies were exogamic by sex: people married people of the opposite sex. However, people have a inclination to hold endogamic matrimonies by socio-economic categories were expected and hence the most common. Children were married immature, misss normally between the ages of 15 or 16 and male childs between the ages of 18 and 21. The life anticipation was merely 35, so they had to be able to reproduce and care for their kids until they are no longer dependent.
Typical Tudor households tended to be atomic and patrilocal.A When the male parent 's parents died, his estates and other properties and in some instances his rubric was passed down to his boy or boies. Descent was unilineal and patrilineal. The hubby or male parent was ever caput of the family, and adult females were by and large considered inferior. Their function in the matrimony was to take attention of the family and give birth to boies to transport on the household name. Even today in England, many facets of modern matrimony remain patrilocal- for illustration, adult females lose their maiden name and take their hubbies ' names. This is another testament to the male high quality in Tudor times and throughout British history. The lone ground to maintain path of a adult female 's line of descent would be if it was of import in allying two households. For illustration, when Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves to ally himself with her German Protestant Brother, he subsequently declared the matrimony bastard, but did n't lock her up like he had Cathrine of Aragon. Alternatively she became an adopted sister to maintain the confederation strong.
Four groups constituted the socio-economic categories in Tudor England. The first was aristocracy, which were chiefly land proprietors. The 2nd consisted of aristocracy and rich merchandisers. Gentlemen besides owned land, and were educated. They ne'er did any manual work, because it was considered beneath them. Yeomans and craftsmen, like aristocracy, owned their ain land, but they were n't systematically educated and worked alongside those who worked for them. Finally, the lowest socio-economic category was the renters who leased land from the rich. They were ever illiterate and hapless. Stratification was based on how much land one had, how educated the individual was and how much manual labour they were required to make. It was possible to alter stratification, or societal ranking, in Tudor England, but it was really hard and did n't go on frequently. With difficult work, a renter could buy his ain land or possibly larn a trade to go a craftsman.
Not all kids in Tudor Times went to school. Merely the kids belonging to households higher in stratification went to school. Boys lower in stratification hoped to acquire an apprenticeship to larn a trade. Those higher in the stratification went to Chantry school until they were closed during the English Reformation. After Chantry schools closed down, affluent households created `` grammar schools '' . The smartest male childs were able to go to University. There were merely two in England in the sixteenth century. They were Oxford and Cambridge, and they still exist today and are among the most esteemed in the universe. Womans of lower categories, nevertheless, were ne'er educated. Those belonging to a higher stratification had coachs come to their places, or female parents taught their girls.
Some facets of British instruction have changed really small. For illustration, when my male parent was go toing school, he went to grammar school and everyone learned Latin and Greek. These were topics in grammar school in Tudor times. King Edward made many schools free, and today in England, there are dearly-won private schools ( though the English name them `` Public Schools '' ) but there are besides legion free schools and if a household can non afford to direct their kid to university the authorities pays if the pupil gets good plenty classs.
House of tudors had to do their ain amusement. Those populating in poorness frequently went to dramas. Marlowe and Shakespeare were great dramatists, and they contributed to the integrating of theater into English civilization. By 1595, dramas were undeniably popular. Theaters were really popular in London. Up to 15,000 people attended dramas each hebdomad in London! Before the popularity of dramas lead to the edifice of theaters during Elizabeth 's reign companies travelled from town to town and performed informally in the streets. Elizabethan theater is still an of import portion of British civilization. We can travel watch dramas at the Globe Theatre in London, and dramas by Shakespeare and other well-known dramatists from the clip are performed all over the universe.
The rich were n't every bit limited in their signifiers of amusement. Though the in-between ages were over, fencing and jousting were common among households of higher stratification. They besides watched bear combat and went Hawking.

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