Here, Buttonholer uses the ending to deliberately call Into question whether Johnny was a pioneer of the newfound society therefore achieving his happy ever after', or just a mere obstacle that had to be overcome by society in order for them to achieve their 'happy ever after. ' Although there is evidence to suggest that he aided the reformation of society, one must conclude that the ending of Jerusalem forcefully calls into question the issues of 'happiness' and forever after' through the character of Johnny as he is seen to be overcome by society as they achieve their pappy ever after' through the reformation of society.
This is emphasized through Johnny's initial reluctance to change as he sets about preventing it from happening in juxtaposition to suspected death at the end of Jerusalem as he becomes part of the rooster ancestors. Within Jerusalem happiness and forever after' are called into question through Johnny's reluctance to change. This is seen through Ginger's description of him; 'once a count, always a count! ' This indicates Johnny's rebuttal to the prospect of change, and his active avoidance to change.
This is seen through his previous use of the word count' towards the start of the play when he is describing 'all those sorry counts on the new estate'. Furthermore, the fact that Ginger uses it to describe Johnny Is significant, as Ginger now sees Johnny as a threat In the same way that Johnny sees the 'new estate'. This Is seen through the use of the word 'count' as It Is the strongest profanity, therefore emphasizing the significance of Johnny as a threat to society attempt to reform.
In light of this, the ending of 'Jerusalem' therefore calls Into question the Issues of happiness and forever after, as through Johnny's refusal to change, he loses is 'happy ever after' as society gains theirs, therefore showing that the Issue with 'happiness' and ;forever after' Is that; as one person gains their 'happy ever after' another persons Is lost. Include Boll quote. In addition, Johnny's presentation as the traditional trickster' aids Buttonholer in calling into question the issues of 'happiness' and ;forever after'.
A trickster is a typical comic character that is involved in manipulating the other characters for lies, which challenge and mock society (them Facet and Parsons always sending me love letters'). This is also seen through his 'gender and form variability, such as when he takes on the role of 'Boron's dog Sheep' in order to mock Facet and Parsons. The issues of 'happiness' and forever after' are then called into question, as a traditional comic ending for a trickster would be reconciliation, where they are punished for their crimes, as part of the transition into a new society, showing the transition into 'happiness' to be brutal.
This is seen In Jerusalem ending, as Johnny completes his portrayal as a trickster figure by being punished for his manipulation f characters and general devious behavior towards society, in a rather brutal fashion. This is shown when "He stumbles down the steps. He has broken ribs. Wrist. He's bloodied. " The trickster is punished violently here in a brutal fashion, which is emphasized through Butterscotch's use of short sentences in order to convey his injuries in the most explicit fashion.
Through Johnny's barbaric punishment by society in order to achieve 'happy ever after' one is forced to question the issues with 'happiness' and forever after' through the lengths in which Johnny is forced, and whether one achieves 'happiness' through doing so. Buttonholer further uses the character of Johnny to forcefully call into question the issues of 'happiness' and forever after' through his involvement in the 'Green world'.
This is shown through his existence purely in the woods, where he is shown to be a catalyst for the challenges society faces, as he is happy in the forest, therefore showing that through society gaining their 'happy ever after' they destroy his. This is shown in the end of the play, where he fails to prevent the unwanted shift in society and remains in a state of desperation, calling back to England's history: "Come you Italians. You fields of ghosts who walk these green plains still. Come, you giants! " There is definitely no sign of "forever after" here.
This is seen through Johnny's refusal to conform to his new society, but also his refusal to give up fighting against the likes of Kenneth and Avon. Here, Buttonholer uses the character of Johnny in order to criticize society, further bringing into question the issues of 'happiness' and forever after', as society manipulates and muffles people in order to gain power over them and achieve their 'happy ever after'. This is seen through Facet and Parsons instant attempts to evict Johnny from the forest in order to build the new estate, as he is the only obstacle in the way.
Additionally, the rather ominous ending where Buttonholer uses an ellipsis to create a rather unsatisfying conclusion is used to point out that the "struggle between Logos and Myth's" is still occurring in society and that it has not yet reached its conclusion. 'happiness' and forever after' through the supercilious behavior of society towards Johnny, This becomes apparent through the extravagant lies Johnny uses to mask his unfulfilled life. An example of this is when he describes his life in the forest, where he has 'seen the air go still and all sound stop and a golden stag clear this clearing.
However, the reference to the 'golden stag is seen within Catholicism as a symbol for Christ, therefore showing the spiritual fulfillment that the forest brings him, similarly to the spiritual fulfillment brought through religion. The use of this sudden fulfillment within Johnny's life emphasizes the issues with 'happiness' and forever after'. This is shown through Johnny and his happiness within the forest, and the apparent fact that society removes his 'happy ever after'.
This therefore portrays the solipsistic nature of society and their inability to allow others to reach their 'happy ever after'. Furthermore, the fact that no one aids him furthers Butterscotch's critique of society as they are solipsistic and therefore oblivious to others needs. This is shown through the fact that Johnny is a mere obstacle to society that needs to be overcome. This can be seen through the authoritative language used by Facet and Parsons when they address Johnny at the start of the play by saying; 'reference 4. 06. 01006' as they are dehumidifying Johnny through their use of numerical language. This therefore calls into question whether our lives are fulfilled, and therefore the idea of 'happiness' and forever after' as Buttonholer uses Johnny to illustrate that no one is truly happy. It becomes apparent through the course of the play that the idea of 'happiness' and forever after' are being called into question through the use of Johnny. This is shown through his failure to keep his 'happy ever after' therefore showing that although they exist, they are not achievable.